|Panzerkampfwagen Tiger Ausf. B|
Tiger II preserved at Bovington Tank Museum
|Place of origin||Nazi Germany|
|Wars||World War II|
|Designer||Henschel & Son / Krupp (turret)|
|Manufacturer||Henschel & Son / Krupp (turret)|
|Number built||492 |
|Weight||68.5 tonnes (67.4 long tons; 75.5 short tons) (early turret)69.8 tonnes (68.7 long tons; 76.9 short tons) (production turret)|
|Length||6.4 metres (21 ft 0 in) (hull)
10.286 metres (33 ft 9 in) with gun forward
|Width||3.755 metres (12 ft 4 in)|
|Height||3.09 metres (10 ft 2 in)|
|Crew||5 (commander, gunner, loader, radio operator, driver)|
|Armor||25–180 mm (1–7 in)|
|1× 8.8 cm KwK 43 L/71"Porsche" turret: 80 roundsProduction turret: 86 rounds|
|2× 7.92 mm Maschinengewehr 345,850 rounds|
|Engine||V-12 Maybach HL 230 P30 gasoline700 PS (690 hp, 515 kW)|
|Power/weight||10 PS/tonne (8.97 hp/ton)|
|Transmission||Maybach OLVAR EG 40 12 16 B (8 forward and 4 reverse)|
|Ground clearance||500 mm (1 ft 8 in)|
|Fuel capacity||860 litres (190 imp gal)|
|Road: 170 km (110 mi)Cross country: 120 km (75 mi)|
|Speed||Maximum, road: 41.5 km/h (25.8 mph)Sustained, road: 38 km/h (24 mph)Cross country: 15 to 20 km/h (9.3 to 12 mph)|
Tiger II is the common name of a German heavy tank of the Second World War. The final official German designation was Panzerkampfwagen Tiger Ausf. B,[notes 1] often shortened to Tiger B. The ordnance inventory designation was Sd.Kfz. 182. It is also known under the informal name Königstiger (the German name for the "Bengal tiger"), often translated as King Tiger or Royal Tiger by Allied soldiers.
The design followed the same concept as the Tiger I, but was intended to be even more formidable. The Tiger II combined the thick armor of the Tiger I with the sloped armor used on the Panther medium tank. The tank weighed almost seventy metric tons, was protected by 100 to 180 mm (3.9 to 7.1 in) of armor to the front, and was armed with the long barrelled 8.8 cm Kampfwagenkanone 43 L/71 gun.[notes 2] The chassis was also the basis for the Jagdtiger turretless tank destroyer.
The Tiger II was issued to heavy tank battalions of the Army (Schwere Heeres Panzer Abteilung - abbreviated s.H.Pz.Abt) and the Waffen-SS (s.SS.Pz.Abt). It was first used in combat with s.H.Pz.Abt. 503 during the Normandy campaign on 11 July 1944; on the Eastern Front the first unit to be outfitted with Tiger IIs was s.H.Pz.Abt. 501 which by 1 September 1944 listed 25 Tiger IIs operational.
Development of a heavy tank design had been initiated in 1937; the initial design contract was awarded to Henschel. Another contract followed in 1939, and was given to Porsche. Both prototype series used the same turret design from Krupp; the main differences were in the hull, transmission, suspension and automotive features.
The Henschel version used a conventional hull design with sloped armor resembling the layout of the Panther tank. It had a rear mounted engine and used nine steel-tired overlapping road wheels with internal springing per side, mounted on transverse torsion bars, in a similar manner to the original Tiger. To simplify maintenance, however, the wheels were overlapping rather than interleaved as in the Tiger I.
The Porsche hull designs included a rear-mounted turret and a mid-mounted engine. The suspension was the same as on the Elefant tank destroyer. This had six road wheels per side mounted in paired bogies sprung with short longitudinal torsion bars that were integral to the wheel pair; this saved internal space and facilitated repairs. One Porsche version had a gasoline-electric hybrid power system; two separate drive trains in parallel, one per side of the tank, each consisting of a hybrid drive train; gasoline engine – electric generator – electric motor – drive sprocket. This method of propulsion had been attempted before on the Tiger (P) (later Elefant prototypes) and in some U.S. designs, but had never been put into production. The Porsche suspension were later used on a few of the later Jagdtiger tank hunters. Another proposal was to use hydraulic drives. Dr. Porsche's unorthodox designs gathered little favor.
A model depicting the curved front of the early, so called "Porsche" turret.A clear view of the angular front of the "Henschel" production turret, taken during Operation Panzerfaust in Budapest, 15 October 1944.Henschel won the contract, and all Tiger IIs were produced by the firm. Two turret designs were used in production vehicles. The initial design is sometimes misleadingly called the "Porsche" turret due to the belief that it was designed by Porsche for their prototype; in fact it was the initial Krupp design for both prototypes. This turret had a rounded front and steeply sloped sides, with a difficult-to-manufacture curved bulge on the turret's left side to accommodate the commander's cupola. Fifty early turrets were mounted to Henschel's hull and used in action. The more common "production" turret, sometimes called the "Henschel" turret, was simplified with a significantly thicker flat face, no shot trap (created by the curved face of the initial-type turret), and less-steeply sloped sides, which prevented the need for a bulge for the commander's cupola.
The turrets were designed to mount the 8.8 cm KwK 43 L/71 gun. Combined with the Turmzielfernrohr 9d (German "turret telescopic sight") monocular sight by Leitz, which all but a few early Tiger IIs used, it was a very accurate and deadly weapon. During practice, the estimated probability of a first round hit on a 2 m (6 ft 7 in) high, 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) wide target only dropped below 100 percent at ranges beyond 1,000 m (0.62 mi), to 95–97 percent at 1,500 metres (0.93 mi) and 85–87 percent at 2,000 m (1.2 mi), depending on ammunition type. Recorded combat performance was lower, but still over 80 percent at 1,000 m, in the 60s at 1,500 m and the 40s at 2,000 m. Penetration of armored plate inclined at 30 degrees was 202 and 132 mm (8.0 and 5.2 in) at 100 and 2,000 m (0.062 and 1.2 mi) respectively for the Panzergranate 39/43 projectile (PzGr—armor-piercing shell), and 238 and 153 mm (9.4 and 6.0 in) for the PzGr. 40/44 projectile between the same ranges. The Sprenggranate 43 (SpGr) high-explosive round was available for soft targets, or the Hohlgranate or Hohlgeschoss 39 (HlGr—HEAT or High explosive anti-tank warhead) round, which had 90 mm (3.5 in) penetration at any range, could be used as a dual-purpose munition against soft or armored targets.
Powered turret traverse was provided by the variable speed Boehringer-Sturm L4S hydraulic motor which was driven from the main engine by a secondary drive shaft. A high and a low speed setting was available to the gunner via a lever on his right. The turret could be rotated 360 degrees in 60 seconds in low gear independent of engine rpm, in 19 seconds in high gear at idle engine speed, and within 10 seconds at the maximum allowable engine speed. The direction and speed of traverse was controlled by the gunner through foot pedals, or a control lever near his left arm. The system was smooth and accurate enough to be used for final gun laying without the gunner needing to use his traverse hand wheel for fine adjustments; most other tanks of the period often required manual fine traverse adjustments. If power was lost, the turret could be slowly traversed by hand, assisted by the loader who had an additional wheel. Rear view showing dual exhausts.Like all German tanks, it had a gasoline engine; in this case the same 700 PS (690 hp, 515 kW) V-12 Maybach HL 230 P30 which powered the much lighter Panther and Tiger I tanks. The Tiger II was under-powered, like many other heavy tanks of World War II, and consumed a lot of fuel, which was in short supply for the Germans. The transmission was the Maybach OLVAR EG 40 12 16 Model B, giving eight forward gears and four reverse, which drove the steering gear. This was the Henschel L 801, a double radius design which proved susceptible to failure. Transverse torsion bar suspension supported the hull, and nine overlapped 800 mm (31 in) diameter road wheels with rubber cushions and steel tyres rode inside the tracks on each side.
Like the Tiger I, each tank was issued with two sets of tracks: a normal "battle track" and a narrower "transport" version used during rail transport. The transport tracks reduced the overall width of the load and could be used to drive the tank short distances on firm ground. The crew were expected to change to normal battle tracks as soon as the tank was unloaded. Ground pressure was 0.76 kg/cm2 (10.8 psi).
The command variant of the Tiger II was designated Panzerbefehlswagen Tiger Ausf. B. It had two versions, Sd.Kfz. 267 and Sd.Kfz. 268. These carried only 63 rounds of 8.8 cm ammunition to provide room to accommodate the extra radios and equipment, and had additional armouring on the engine compartment. The Sd.Kfz. 267 was to have used FuG 8 and FuG 5 radio sets, with the most notable external changes being a 2 metre long rod antenna mounted on the turret roof and a Sternantenna D ("Star antenna D"), mounted on an insulated base (the 104mm Antennenfuss Nr. 1) which was protected by a large armored cylinder. This equipment was located on the rear decking in a position originally used for deep-wading equipment. The Sd.Kfz. 268 used FuG 7 and FuG 5 radios with a 2 metre rod antenna mounted on the turret roof and a 1.4 metre rod antenna mounted on the rear deck.
The Tiger II was developed late in the war and made in relatively small numbers - 1,500 Tiger IIs were ordered, but the production was severely disrupted by Allied bombing. Among others, five raids between 22 September and 7 October 1944 destroyed 95 percent of the floor area of the Henschel plant. It is estimated that this caused the loss in production of some 657 Tiger IIs. Only 492 units were produced: 1 in 1943, 379 in 1944, and 112 in 1945. Full production ran from mid-1944 to the end of the war.
The Tiger II served as a basis for one production variant, the Jagdtiger casemate-style tank destroyer, and a proposed Grille 17/21/30/42 self-propelled mount for heavy guns that never reached production.
A version of the Maybach HL230 engine with fuel injection and uprated drive train was designed that would have increased the power to about 1,000 PS (986 hp, 736 kW). Henschel proposed using it for future production and fitting it to existing Tiger IIs, but the deteriorating situation meant the upgrade never left the drawing board. Other suggested improvements included a new main weapon (10.5 cm KwK L/68), stabilized sights, stabilized main gun, automatic ammunition feed, a Zeiss stereoscopic range finder, heated crew compartment, stowage for an additional 12 rounds, and an overpressure and air filtration system to protect against poison gas, but these either never got beyond the proposal stage or did not enter production before the war ended.
- Gearbox: Maybach OLVAR EG 40 12 16 B (8 forward and 4 reverse)
- Radio: FuG 5, Befehlswagen (command tank) version: FuG 8 (Sd.Kfz. 267), FuG 7 (Sd.Kfz. 268)
- Gun Sight: Turmzielfernrohr 9b/1 (TZF 9b/1) binocular to May 1944, then the 9d (TZF 9d) monocular.
|Hull front||(lower)||100 mm (3.9 in) at 40°||(upper)||150 mm (5.9 in) at 40°|
|Hull side||(lower)||80 mm (3.1 in) at 90°||(upper)||80 mm (3.1 in) at 65°|
|Hull rear||80 mm (3.1 in) at 60°|
|Hull top||40 mm (1.6 in) at 0°|
|Hull bottom||(front)||40 mm (1.6 in) at 90°||(rear)||25 mm (0.98 in) at 90°|
|Turret front||(production)||180 mm (7.1 in) at 80°||("Porsche")||60 to 110 mm (2.4 to 4.3 in), rounded|
|Turret side||(production)||80 mm (3.1 in) at 69°||("Porsche")||80 mm (3.1 in) at 60°|
|Turret rear||(production)||80 mm (3.1 in) at 70°||("Porsche")||80 mm (3.1 in) at 60°|
|Turret top||(production)||44 mm (1.7 in) at 0–10°||("Porsche")||40 mm (1.6 in) at 0–12°|
See also: German heavy tank battalionApart from research, training, and a five tank attachment to the Panzer Lehr, Tiger II's were only issued to heavy tank battalions (schwere Panzer Abteilung) of the German Army (Heer), or Waffen-SS. Tiger II's of Schwere Heeres Panzer Abteilung 503 (s.H.Pz.Abt. 503) 'Feldherrnhalle' posing in formation for the German newsreelA standard battalion (Abteilung) comprised 45 tanks:
3 x Tiger II
|1st company command
2 x Tiger II
|2nd company command
2 x Tiger II
|3rd company command
2 x Tiger II
4 x Tiger II
4 x Tiger II
4 x Tiger II
4 x Tiger II
4 x Tiger II
4 x Tiger II
4 x Tiger II
4 x Tiger II
4 x Tiger II
Units which used the Tiger II were as follows:
- Heer: (s.H.Pz.Abt) 501, 502, 503, 504, 505, 506, 507, 508, 509, 510, 511
- SS: (s.SS.Pz.Abt) 501, 502, 503
Tiger II with the production turret, at the Deutsches Panzermuseum, Munster, GermanyThere were two main mechanical reasons for the initial unreliability of the Tiger II: leaking seals and gaskets, and the overburdened drivetrain, which was originally intended for a lighter vehicle. The double radius steering gear was particularly prone to failure. Lack of crew training could amplify this problem; drivers originally given only limited training on other tanks were often sent directly to operational units already on their way to the front.
The Schwere Heeres Panzer Abteilung 501 (s.H.Pz.Abt. 501) arrived on the Eastern Front with only 8 out of 45 tanks operational, mostly due to drivetrain failures. The first five Tiger IIs delivered to the Panzer Lehr Division broke down before they could be used in combat, and were destroyed to prevent capture.
Reliability was improved over time with the continuous introduction of modified seals, gaskets and drive train components, driver training, and sufficient maintenance. Statistics from 15 March 1945 compare the availability of Tiger IIs with respect to other tanks: 62 percent of Panzer IVs, 59 percent of Tiger IIs and 48 percent of Panthers were operational by this period of the war.
Overall, the Tiger II was a formidable tank in spite of its problems. Its 88 mm armament could destroy any of the Allied armored fighting vehicles in service during the war far outside the effective ranges of their guns. Also, notwithstanding its reliability problems, the Tiger II was remarkably agile for such a heavy vehicle. Contemporary German records and testing results indicate that its mobility was as good as or better than most German or Allied tanks.
The first combat use of the Tiger II was by the 1st Company of the 503rd Heavy Panzer Battalion (s.H.Pz.Abt. 503) during the Battle of Normandy, opposing Operation Atlantic between Troarn and Demouville on 18 July 1944; losses were two from combat, plus the company commander's tank which became irrecoverably trapped after falling into a bomb crater made during Operation Goodwood.
On the Eastern Front, it was first used on 12 August 1944 by the 501st Heavy Panzer Battalion (s.H.Pz.Abt. 501) resisting the Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive. It attacked the Soviet bridgehead over the Vistula River near Baranów Sandomierski. On the road to Oględów, three Tiger IIs were destroyed in an ambush by a few T-34-85s. Because these tanks suffered ammunition explosions which caused many crew fatalities, main gun rounds were no longer allowed to be stowed within the turret, reducing capacity to 68. Up to fourteen Tiger IIs of the 501st were lost in the area between 12 and 13 August to flanking ambushes by the Soviet T-34-85 and IS-2 tanks in inconvenient sandy terrain. A Tiger II of s.H.Pz.Abt. 503 and Hungarian troops in a battle scarred street in Buda's Castle district, October 1944On 15 October 1944 Tiger IIs of 503rd Heavy Panzer Battalion played a crucial role during Operation Panzerfaust, supporting Otto Skorzeny's troops in taking the Hungarian capital of Budapest, which ensured that the country remained with the Axis until the end of the war. The 503rd then took part in the Battle of Debrecen. The 503rd remained in the Hungarian theater of operations for 166 days, during which it accounted for at least 121 Soviet tanks, 244 anti-tank guns and artillery pieces, five aircraft and a train. This was at the loss of 25 Tiger IIs; ten were knocked out by Soviet troops and burned out, two were sent back to Vienna for a factory overhaul, while thirteen were blown up by their crews for various reasons, usually to prevent them from falling into enemy hands. Kurt Knispel, the highest scoring tank ace of all time (162 enemy AFVs destroyed), also served with the 503rd, and was killed in action on 29 April 1945 in his Tiger II.
The Tiger II was also present at the Ardennes Offensive of December 1944, the Soviet Vistula–Oder and East Prussian Offensives in January 1945, the German Lake Balaton Offensive in Hungary in March 1945, the Battle of the Seelow Heights in April 1945, and finally the Battle of Berlin at the end of the war.
The 103rd SS Heavy Panzer Battalion (s.SS Pz.Abt. 503) claimed approximately 500 kills in the period from January to April 1945 on the Eastern Front for the loss of 45 Tiger IIs (most of which were abandoned and destroyed by their own crews after mechanical breakdowns or for lack of fuel).
Rare photo of a Tiger II knocked out, probably through the frontal armor of the turret. (Vehicle 301 from s.H.Pz.Abt. 503, lost on 26 August)The heavy armor and powerful long-range gun gave the Tiger II an advantage against all opposing Western Allied and Soviet tanks attempting to engage it from head on. This was especially true on the Western Front, where, until the arrival of the few M26 Pershings in 1945, neither the British nor U.S. forces had brought heavy tanks into service. Only the British QF 17 pounder (76.2 mm) gun using armour-piercing discarding sabot shot was theoretically capable of penetrating the front of the Tiger II's turret and nose (lower front hull) at 1,100 and 1,200 yd (1,000 and 1,100 m) respectively. Flanking maneuvers were used against the Tiger II to attempt a shot at the thinner side and rear armor, giving a tactical advantage to the Tiger II in most engagements. Moreover, the main armament of the Tiger II was capable of knocking out any Allied tank frontally at ranges exceeding 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi), beyond the effective range of Allied tank guns.
During August 1944, a number of Tiger II tanks were captured by the Soviets near Sandomierz and were soon moved to their testing grounds at Kubinka. The Soviet team gave the opinion that the tests revealed the tanks to be severely defective; the transmission and suspension broke down very frequently and the engine was prone to overheating and consequential failure. Additionally, the Soviets opinion was of deficiencies in the armor after firing many anti-tank rounds at the same target. Not only did they report that the metal was of shoddy quality (a problem not particular to the Tiger II—as the war progressed, the Germans found it harder and harder to obtain the alloys needed for high-quality steel), but the welding was also, despite "careful workmanship", extremely poor. As a result, even when shells did not penetrate the armor, there was often a large amount of spalling, and the armor plating could often crack at the welds when struck by multiple heavy shells, rendering the tank inoperable. They also claimed that their A-19 and BS-3 guns could penetrate the weld joint on the hull front at 500 m, and the turret front at 1,000-1,500 m.
The only operable example is displayed in the Musée des Blindés, Saumur, France. It has the production turret and is accessible to the public. Other survivors include: Tiger II at the Bovington Tank MuseumWorking Tiger II demonstration at the Musée des Blindés arenaKing Tiger at La Gleize.King Tiger located at Patton Museum of Cavalry and Armor.*Bovington Tank Museum, Dorset, UK. Tiger II with early production turret is on display. This vehicle was the second soft steel prototype made and did not see active service. A production turret Tiger II is on loan from the Defence Academy, Shrivenham. See below.
- Defence Academy of the United Kingdom, Shrivenham, UK. Tiger II (production turret). This vehicle was from s.SS Pz.Abt. 501, with hull number 280093, turret number 104, and has a comprehensive coating of Zimmerit. It was claimed by Sergeant Roberts of A Squadron, 23rd Hussars, 11th Armoured Division in a Sherman tank near Beauvais, although it had already been disabled and abandoned by its crew following damage to its tracks and final drive. There is a photograph showing this vehicle after its final action in a beet field with its turret turned 90°. This vehicle is currently on display at Bovington Tank Museum.
- Wheatcroft Collection, Leicestershire, UK. A private collector, Wheatcroft is about to start a restoration/rebuild of a complete Tiger II. The project will include parts from many individual Tiger IIs, but many parts will be of new manufacture. Wheatcroft has stated that he has 70–80% of the original parts needed for a reconstruction and more parts are sourced continuously. Known and shown parts are a complete front glacis plate, 8.8 cm KwK 43 main armament, engine deck plates, approx. 1/3 hull (rear) in one part, a set of tracks, and approx. 2/3 of the left-side hull plate in two parts. The aim of the project is a complete Tiger II in running order.
- Musée des Blindés, Saumur, France. A Tiger II (production turret) in working order.
- Mantes-la-Jolie, France. A more or less complete, but wrecked, Tiger II (production turret) is buried under regional road 913. Parts of the turret were recovered in a limited exploratory excavation in 2001. Further excavation is currently halted for financial reasons. There are plans to fully excavate and restore this Tiger II for a Vexin battle memorial.
- Kubinka Tank Museum, Russia. Tiger II (production turret) with turret number 002 (502) captured at Oględów by the Red Army. The museum is open to the public with restrictions as the vehicle is located on the military base.
- December 44 Museum, La Gleize, Belgium. A cosmetically restored Tiger II (production turret) in open air location accessible to public. Hull number 280273, built in October 1944. Turret number 213 from s.SS Pz.Abt 501. This tank was abandoned in La Gleize on 24 December 1944. The front part, about 1/3, of the gun tube is restored with a Panther gun tube and muzzle brake. It also has replica mudguards. It is stripped of exterior and internal fittings and most of the torsion bars are broken, but it still has its gearbox and engine in place.
- Deutsches Panzermuseum, Munster, Germany. Tiger II (production turret) displayed in interior location accessible to public on payment of entrance fee. Hull number 280101. Turret number 121 from s.SS.Pz.Abt 501.
- Patton Museum of Cavalry and Armor, Fort Knox, United States. Tiger II (production turret). Hull number 280243, built in September 1944. Turret number 332 from s.SS Pz.Abt. 501. Abandoned near Trois-Ponts, it was captured by the US Army on 24 December 1944. The left side was cut open for educational purposes at the Aberdeen Proving Ground in the late 1940s. This tank left Fort Knox on 14 December 2010, en route to the proposed US Army armor museum at Fort Benning, United States.
- Schweizerisches Militärmuseum Full, Switzerland. This Tiger II (production turret) was previously displayed in the Thun Tank Museum, and is now on loan to the Schweizerisches Militärmuseum Full (September 2006). It will be completely restored to running condition in a long-term project. This tank was given to Switzerland by France after the war. Hull number 280215 from s.H.Pz.Abt 506.
- ^ a b Jentz 1996, p. 288.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Jentz and Doyle 1993, p. 28 (figure D)
- ^ a b c d Jentz and Doyle 1993, p. 23.
- ^ a b c d Jentz and Doyle 1997, pp. 162–165.
- ^ a b c d e Jentz and Doyle 1993, p. 33.
- ^ a b c d e f Jentz and Doyle 1993, p. 16.
- ^ Buckley 2004, p. 119.
- ^ a b Jentz and Doyle 1993, pp. 12, 15.
- ^ a b Schneider 1990, p. 18.
- ^ Jentz and Doyle 1993, p. 37.
- ^ Jentz and Doyle 1993, p. 40.
- ^ a b Jentz & Doyle 1993, p. 3.
- ^ Jentz and Doyle 1993, pp. 10–12.
- ^ Jentz and Doyle 1993, pp. 8–10.
- ^ Jentz and Doyle 1993, p. 17
- ^ Jentz and Doyle 1993, pp. 13–16.
- ^ a b c Jentz and Doyle 1993, pp. 23–24
- ^ a b c Pz.Kpfw.VI Tiger Ausf. E & B Technical Manual. pp. 62–63 [full citation needed]
- ^ Jentz and Doyle 1993, p. 24
- ^ a b Jentz and Doyle 1993, pp. 11–12.
- ^ Jentz and Doyle 1993, p. 13.
- ^ Jentz and Doyle 1993, pp. 16-17.
- ^ Manchester 1968, p. 498.
- ^ Jentz and Doyle 1993, p. 17.
- ^ Parada, George. "Grille series". Achtung Panzer!. http://www.achtungpanzer.com/pz13.htm#grille. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- ^ a b Jentz and Doyle 1997, pp. 144–154
- ^ Jentz and Doyle 1993, p. 19.
- ^ a b c Jentz and Doyle 1993, p. 36.
- ^ Jentz and Doyle 1993, pp. 37–42.
- ^ a b Jentz and Doyle 1993, p. 34
- ^ Jentz and Doyle 1993, p. 11
- ^ Jentz and Doyle 1993, p. 35.
- ^ Jentz and Doyle 1993, pp. 18, 33–36.
- ^ a b Jarymowycz 2001, p. 258.
- ^ Jentz and Doyle 1993, pp. 33–34.
- ^ Schneider 2000, p. 133.
- ^ Zaloga 1994, p. 14.
- ^ Schneider 2000, p. 46.
- ^ a b Pyatakhin, Dmitry; Parada, George. "Tiger-Tamers: Battle for Sandomierz Bulge - August of 1944". Achtung Panzer!. http://www.achtungpanzer.com/articles/tigertam.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-29.
- ^ Számvéber, 2000. p. 147.
- ^ Schneider 2005, pp. 214–216.
- ^ Schneider 2000, p. 47.
- ^ Schneider 2000, pp. 89–91.
- ^ Schneider 2005, p. 217.
- ^ Schneider 2005, pp. 300–303.
- ^ Schneider 2005, pp. 304, 324.
- ^ Pallud 2006, p. 152
- ^ Jarymowycz 2001, p. 274.
- ^ "Was the Tiger really "King?": Testing the King Tiger at Kubinka". The Russian Battlefield. http://www.battlefield.ru/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=282&Itemid=124. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- ^ Jentz and Doyle 1997, p.108.
- ^ Schneider 2005, p. 212.
- ^ Parada, George. "Tiger II Gallery 2". Achtung Panzer!. http://www.achtungpanzer.com/gallery/ktgal2.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- ^ "Gallery of parts". Wheatcroft Collection. http://www.wheatcroftcollection.com/tiger.html. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- ^ "Memorial Vexin 44" (in French). vexinhistoirevivante.com. http://www.vexinhistoirevivante.com/memorial_tigre.html. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- ^ "Tiger II". Schweizerisches Militärmuseum Full. http://www.koenigstiger.ch. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
Ausführung – abbr: Ausf. (English: variant). The full titles Panzerkampfwagen Tiger Ausf. B and Panzerbefehlswagen Tiger Ausf. B (for the command version) were used in training and maintenance manuals and in organization and equipment tables. (Jentz and Doyle 1997) Also sometimes referred to as Pz. VI Ausf B, not to be confused with Pz. VI Ausf H which was the Tiger I.
- ^ Kampfwagenkanone – abbr: KwK (English: fighting vehicle cannon)
- Buckley, John (2004). British Armour in the Normandy Campaign, 1944. London: F. Cass. ISBN 978-0-7146-5323-5.
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- Számvéber, Norbert (2000) (in Hungarian). Nehézpáncélosok. A német 503. nehézpáncélos-osztály magyarországi harcai.. Hadtörténeti Levéltár. ISBN 963-00-2526-4.
- Wilbeck, Christopher (2004). Sledgehammers: Strengths and Flaws of Tiger Tank Battalions in World War II. The Aberjona Press. ISBN 978-0-9717650-2-3.
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