FANDOM


Please replace links to Wikipedia in this article with links to this wiki. Only do this if these links relate to the wiki subject. Thank you!
[1]

U-995 Type VIIC/41 at the German navy memorial at Laboe

Class overview
Name: Type VII
Builders: Neptun Werft, RostockDeschimag, BremenGermaniawerft, Kiel

Flender Werke, Lübeck Danziger Werft, Danzig Blohm + Voss, Hamburg Kriegsmarinewerft, Wilhelmshaven Nordseewerke, Emden F. Schichau, Bremerhaven,[1] Howaldtswerke AG, Kiel

Operators: Kriegsmarine

Soviet Navy [Note 1] Royal Norwegian Navy [Note 2] Royal Navy [Note 3] French Navy [Note 4] Spanish Navy[Note 5]

In commission: 1936–1970 (G-7)
Completed: 703
General characteristics (Type VIIC)
Displacement:

769 tonnes (757 long tons) surfaced 871 t (857 long tons) submerged [2]

Length: 67.1 m (220 ft 2 in) o/a[1]<50.5 m (165 ft 8 in) pressure hull[1]
Beam: 6.2 m (20 ft 4 in) o/a[1]4.7 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull[1]
Height: 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in)[1]
Draft: 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)[1]
Propulsion: 2 × supercharged Germaniawerft, 6-cylinder, 4-stroke M6V 40/46 diesels totalling 2,800–3,200 hp (2,100–2,400 kW). Max rpm: 470-490[1]
Speed: 17.7 knots (20.4 mph; 32.8 km/h) surfaced[1]7.6 knots (8.7 mph; 14.1 km/h) submerged[1]
Range: 15,170 km (8,190 nmi) at 10 kn (19 km/h) surfaced[1]150 km (81 nmi) at 4 kn (7.4 km/h) submerged[1]
Test depth: 230 m (750 ft)[1]Calculated crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)[1]
Complement: 44-52 officers & ratings[1]
Armament: • 5 × 533 mm (21 in) torpedo tubes (4 bow, 1 stern)[1]• 14 × torpedoes or 26 TMA or39 TMB mines• 1 × 8.8 cm SK C/35 naval gun[3]with 220 rounds

• Various FLAK weaponry (see main article)

Type VII U-boats were the most common type of German World War II U-boat. The Type VII was based on earlier German submarine designs going back to the World War I Type UB III, designed through the Dutch dummy company Ingenieurskantoor voor Scheepsbouw den Haag (I.v.S) which was set up by Germany after World War I in order to maintain and develop German submarine technology and to circumvent the limitations set by the Treaty of Versailles, and was built by shipyards around the world. The Finnish Vetehinen class and Spanish Type E-1 also provided some of the basis for the Type VII design. These designs led to the Type VII along with Type I, the latter being built in AG Weser shipyard in Bremen, Germany. The production of Type I was cut down only after two boats; the reasons for this are not certain and range from political decisions to faults of the type. The design of the Type I was further used in the development of the Type VII and Type IX. Type VII submarines were the most widely used U-boats of the war and were the most produced submarine class in history, with 703 built.[4] The type had several modifications.

ContentsEdit

[hide] *1 Type VIIA

[edit] Type VIIAEdit

Type VIIA U-boats were designed in 1933-34 as the first series of a new generation of attack U-boats.[5] Most Type VIIA U-boats were constructed at Deschimag AG Weser in Bremen with the exception of U-33 through U-36, which were built at Germaniawerft, Kiel. Type VIIA U-boats were generally popular with their crews and much more powerful than the smaller Type II U-boats they replaced, with four bow and one external stern torpedo tubes. Usually carrying 11 torpedoes on board, they were very agile on the surface and mounted the 88 mm fast-firing deck gun with about 220 rounds.[5]

Ten Type VIIA boats were built between 1935 and 1937. All but two Type VIIA U-boats were sunk during World War II (U-29 and U-30, both scuttled in Kupfermühlen Bay on 4 May 1945).[5]

The boat was powered on the surface by two MAN AG, 6 cylinder, 4-stroke M6V 40/46 diesels giving a total of 2,100 to 2,310 brake horsepower (1,600 to 1,720 kW) at 470 to 485 rpm. When submerged it was propelled by two BBC GG UB 720/8 electric motors giving a total of 750 horsepower (560 kW) at 322 rpm.[5]

[edit] List of Type VIIA submarinesEdit

Type VIIA submarines
Date launched Name of U-boat Date commissioned Ships sunk or damaged Fate 01936-06-2424 June 1936 U-27[6] 01936-08-1212 August 1936 2[7] Sunk September 1939
01936-07-1414 July 1936 U-28[8] 01936-09-1212 September 1936 15[9] sunk in training accident 1944
01936-08-2929 August 1936 U-29[10] 01936-11-1616 November 1936 13[11] scuttled 1945
01936-08-044 August 1936 U-30[12] 01936-10-088 October 1936 19[13]
01936-09-2525 September 1936 U-31[14] 01936-12-2828 December 1936 14[15]
01937-02-2525 February 1937 U-32[16] 01937-04-1515 April 1937 25[17]
01936-06-1111 June 1936 U-33[18] 01936-07-2525 July 1936 11[19]
01936-07-1717 July 1936 U-34[20] 01936-09-1212 September 1936 24[21]
01936-09-2424 September 1936 U-35[22] 01936-11-033 November 1936 5[23]
01936-11-044 November 1936 U-36[24] 01936-12-1616 December 1936 3[25]

[edit] Type VIIBEdit

The VIIA had limited fuel capacity, so 24 Type VIIB boats were built between 1936 and 1940 with an additional 33 tons of fuel in external saddle tanks which added another 2500 miles (4625 km) of range at 10 knots (19 km/h) surfaced.[26] They were slightly faster than the VIIA, and had two rudders for greater agility. The torpedo armament was improved by moving the aft tube to the inside of the boat. Now an additional aft torpedo could be carried below the deck plating of the aft torpedo room (which also served as the electric motor room) and two watertight compartments under the upper deck could hold two additional torpedoes giving it a total of 14 torpedoes. The only exception was U-83, which lacked a stern tube and carried only 12 torpedoes.[26] Prien's VIIB U-47 (model)[2][3]Prien's U-47 (model)Type VIIBs included many of the most famous U-boats of World War II, including U-48 (the most successful), Prien's U-47, Kretschmer's U-99, and Schepke's U-100.[26]

On the surface the boat was powered by two supercharged MAN, 6 cylinder, 4-stroke M6V 40/46 diesels (except for U-45 to U-50, U-83, U-85, U-87, U-99, U-100, and U-102 which were powered by two supercharged Germaniawerft 6-cylinder, 4-stroke F46 diesels) giving a total of 2,800 to 3,200 bhp (2,400 kW) at 470 to 490 rpm. When submerged, the boat was powered by two AEG GU 460/8-276 (except in U-45, U-46, U-49, U-51, U-52, U-54, U-73 to U-76, U-99 and U-100 which retained the BBC motor of the VIIA) electric motors giving a total of 750 shp (560 kW) at 295 rpm.[26]

[edit] List of Type VIIB submarinesEdit

Type VIIB submarines
Date launched Name of U-boat Date commissioned Ships sunk or damaged 01938-04-2727 April 1938 U-45[27] 01938-06-2525 June 1938 2[28]
01938-09-1010 September 1938 U-46[29] 01938-11-022 November 1938 27[30]
01938-10-2929 October 1938 U-47[31] 01938-12-1717 December 1938 39[32]
01939-03-088 March 1939 U-48[33] 01939-04-2222 April 1939 55[34]
01939-06-2424 June 1939 U-49[35] 01939-08-1212 August 1939 1[36]
01939-11-011 November 1939 U-50[37] 01939-12-1212 December 1939 4[38]
01938-06-1111 June 1938 U-51[39] 01938-08-066 August 1938 6[40]
01938-12-2121 December 1938 U-52[41] 01939-02-044 February 1939 13[42]
01939-05-066 May 1939 U-53[43] 01939-06-2424 June 1939 8[44]
01939-08-1515 August 1939 U-54[45] 01939-09-2323 September 1939 0
01939-10-1919 October 1939 U-55[46] 01939-11-2121 November 1939 6[47]
01940-07-2727 July 1940 U-73[48] 01940-09-3030 September 1940 15[49]
01940-08-3131 August 1940 U-74[50] 01940-10-3131 October 1940 7[51]
01940-10-1818 October 1940 U-75[52] 01940-12-1919 December 1940 9[53]
01940-10-033 October 1940 U-76[54] 01940-12-033 December 1940 2[55]
01940-12-099 December 1940 U-83[56] 01941-02-088 February 1941 8[57]
01941-02-2626 February 1941 U-84[58] 01941-04-2929 April 1941 7[59]
01941-04-1010 April 1941 U-85[60] 01941-06-077 June 1941 3[61]
01941-05-1010 May 1941 U-86[62] 01941-07-088 July 1941 4[63]
01941-06-2121 June 1941 U-87[64] 01941-08-1919 August 1941 5[65]
01940-03-1212 March 1940 U-99[66] 01940-04-1818 April 1940 44[67]
01940-04-1010 April 1940 U-100[68] 01940-05-3030 May 1940 30[69]
01940-01-1313 January 1940 U-101[70] 01940-03-1111 March 1940 25[71]
01940-03-2121 March 1940 U-102[72] 01940-04-2727 April 1940 2[73]

[edit] Type VIICEdit

[4][5]A cross-section of a Type VIIC U-boat.[6][7]miniature model of a Type VIIC.The Type VIIC was the workhorse of the German U-boat force, with 568 commissioned from 1940 to 1945.[74] The first VIIC boat commissioned was the U-69 in 1940. The Type VIIC was an effective fighting machine and was seen almost everywhere U-boats operated, although its range of only 6,500 nautical miles was not as great as that of the larger Type IX (11,000 nautical miles), severely limiting the time it could spend in the far reaches of the western and southern Atlantic without refueling from a tender or U-boat tanker.[74] The VIIC came into service toward the end of the first "Happy Time"[Note 6] near the beginning of the war and was still the most numerous type in service when Allied anti-submarine efforts finally defeated the U-boat campaign in late 1943 and 1944.[74]

Type VIIC differed from the VIIB only in the addition of an active sonar and a few minor mechanical improvements, making it 2 feet longer and 8 tons heavier. Speed and range were essentially the same. Many of these boats were fitted with snorkels in 1944 and 1945.[74]

They had the same torpedo tube arrangement as their predecessors, except for U-72, U-78, U-80, U-554, and U-555, which had only two bow tubes, and for U-203, U-331, U-351, U-401, U-431, and U-651, which had no stern tube.[74]

On the surface the boats (except for U-88, U-90 and U-132 to U-136 which used MAN M6V40/46s) were propelled by two supercharged Germaniawerft, 6 cylinder, 4-stroke M6V 40/46 diesels totaling 2,800 to 3,200 hp (2,100 to 2,400 kW) at 470 to 490 rpm.[74]

For submerged propulsion, several different electric motors were used. Early models used the VIIB configuration of two AEG GU 460/8-276 electric motors, totaling 750 hp (560 kW) with a max rpm of 296, while newer boats used two BBC (Brown Boveri & Co) GG UB 720/8, two GL (Garbe Lahmeyer) RP 137/c electric motors or two SSW (Siemens-Schuckert-Werke) GU 343/38-8 electric motors with the same power output as the AEG motors.[74]

Perhaps the most famous VIIC boat was U-96, featured in the movie Das Boot.[74]

[edit] U-flak "Flak Traps"Edit

The concept of the "U-flak" or "Flak Trap" originated the previous year, on 31 August 1942, when U-256 was seriously damaged by aircraft. Rather than scrap the boat, it was decided to refit her as a heavily-armed anti-aircraft boat intended to combat the losses being inflicted by Allied aircraft in the Bay of Biscay. Two 20 mm quadruple Flakvierling mounts and an experimental 37 mm automatic gun were installed on the U-flaks' decks. A battery of 86 mm line-carrying anti-aircraft rockets was tested (similar to a device used by the British in the defense of airfields), but this idea proved unworkable. At times, two additional single 20 mm guns were also mounted. The submarines' limited fuel capacities restricted them to operations only within the Bay of Biscay. Only five torpedoes were carried, preloaded in the tubes, to free up space needed for additional gun crew.

Four VIIC boats were modified for use as surface escorts for U-boats departing and returning to French Atlantic bases. These "U-flak" boats were U-441, U-256, U-621, and U-951. Conversion began on three others (U-211, U-263, and U-271) but none was completed and they were eventually returned to duty as standard VIIC attack boats.

The modified boats became operational in June 1943 and at first appeared to be successful against a surprised Royal Air Force. Hoping that the extra firepower might allow the boats to survive relentless British air attacks in the Bay of Biscay and reach their operational areas, Donitz ordered the boats to cross the bay in groups at maximum speed. The effort earned the Germans about two more months of relatively limited freedom, until the RAF modified their tactics. When a pilot saw that a U-boat was going to fight on the surface, he held off attacking and called in reinforcements. When several aircraft had arrived, they all attacked at once. If the U-boat dived, surface vessels were called to the scene to scour the area with sonar and drop depth charges. The British also began equipping some aircraft with rockets that could sink a U-boat with a single hit, finally making it too dangerous for a U-boat to attempt to fight it out on the surface regardless of its armament.[75] In November 1943, less than six months after the experiment began, it was discontinued. All U-flaks were converted back to standard attack boats and fitted with Turm 4, the standard anti-aircraft armament for U-boats at the time. (According to German sources, only six aircraft had been shot down by the U-flaks in six missions, three by U-441, and one each by U-256, U-621, and U-953.)

[edit] Type VIIC/41Edit

[8][9]Type VIIC/41 U-995. Laboe Naval MemorialType VIIC/41 was a slightly modified version of the VIIC and had the same armament and engines. The difference was a stronger pressure hull giving them a deeper test depth and lighter machinery to compensate for the added steel in the hull, making them slightly lighter than the VIIC. A total of 91 were built; all of them from U-1271 onwards lacked the fittings to handle mines.

Today one Type VIIC/41 still exists: U-995 is on display at Laboe (north of Kiel), the only surviving Type VII in the world.

[edit] List of Type VIIC/41 submarinesEdit

There were 91 Type VIIC/41 submarines commissioned.

*U-292*U-293*U-294 *U-929*U-930*U-995 *U-1019*U-1020*U-1021 *U-1168*U-1169*U-1170

[edit] ViewsEdit

  • [10]VIIC submarine U 995 in Laboe
  • [11]E-machine room, behind the diesel engine room
  • [12]Control of E-machines
  • [13]Diesel engine room
  • [14]Pressure bulkhead behind the central
  • [15]View of the central in the tower
  • [16]Central, behind the bow compartment
  • [17]Front area with the four torpedo tubes
  • [18]Tower with 2 × 2 × 2-cm and 1 × 3.7-cm antiaircraft gun

[edit] Type VIIC/42Edit

The Type VIIC/42 was designed in 1942 and 1943 to replace the aging Type VIIC. It would have had a much stronger pressure hull, with skin thickness up to 28 mm, and would have dived twice as deep as the previous VIICs. These boats would have been very similar in external appearance to the VIIC/41 but with two periscopes in the tower and would have carried two more torpedoes.

Contracts were signed for 164 boats and a few boats were laid down, but all were cancelled on 30 September 1943 in favor of the new Type XXI, and none was advanced enough in construction to be launched.

It was powered by the same engines as the VIIC.

[edit] Type VIIDEdit

The type VIID boats, designed in 1939 and 1940, were a lengthened - by 10 m (32 ft 10 in) - version of the VIIC for use as a minelayer. The mines were carried in, and released from, three banks of five vertical tubes just aft of the conning tower.[76] The extended hull also improved fuel and food storage.

On the surface the boat used two supercharged Germaniawerft, 6 cylinder, 4-stroke F46 diesels delivering 3,200 bhp (2,400 kW) at between 470 to 490 rpm. When submerged the boat used two AEG GU 460/8-276 electric motors giving a total of 750 shp (560 kW) at 285 rpm.[76]

Only one (U-218) managed to survive the war; the other five were sunk, killing all crew members.[76]

[edit] List of Type VIID submarinesEdit

Type VIID submarines
Date launched Name of U-boat Date commissioned Ships sunk or damaged 01941-07-2424 July 1941 U-213[77] 01941-08-3030 August 1941 0
01941-09-1818 September 1941 U-214[78] 01941-11-011 November 1941 6[79]
01941-10-099 October 1941 U-215[80] 01941-11-2222 November 1941 1[81]
01941-10-2323 October 1941 U-216[82] 01941-12-1515 December 1941 1[83]
01941-11-1515 November 1941 U-217[84] 01942-01-3131 January 1942 3[85]
01941-12-055 December 1941 U-218[86] 01942-01-2424 January 1942 5[87]

[edit] Type VIIFEdit

The Type VIIF boats were designed in 1941 as supply boats to rearm U-boats at sea once they had used up their torpeodes. This required a lengthened hull and they were the largest and heaviest type VII boats built. They were armed identically with the other Type VIIs except that they could have up to 39 torpedoes onboard and had no deck guns.[88]

Only four Type VIIFs were built. Two of them, U-1062 and U-1059, were sent to support the Monsun Gruppe in the Far East; U-1060 and U-1061 remained in the Atlantic. Type VIIF U-boats used the same engines as the Type VIID class.[88] Three were sunk during the war, the last was scuttled after the war along with the majority of the surrendered U boats

List of Type VIIF submarines
Name of U-boat Date launched Date commissioned Notes U-1059[89] 01943-03-1212 March 1943 01943-05-011 May 1943 sunk by Allied aircraft on second supply patrol in support of Far East operations
U-1060[90] 01943-03-088 March 1943 01943-05-1515 May 1943 completed 6 supply patrols before wrecked by Allied aircraft in October 1944
U-1061[91] 01943-04-2222 April 1943 01943-08-2525 August 1943 completed five supply patrols and was surrendered at end of war
U-1062[92] 01943-05-088 May 1943 01943-06-1919 June 1943 sunk by US escorts on return from first supply patrol to Far East

[edit] SpecificationsEdit

Class VIIA[93] VIIB[93] VIIC[93] VIIC/41[93] VIIC/42[93] VIID[93] VIIF[93]
Displacement

surfaced

626 tons 753 tons 769 tons 769 tons 999 tons 965 tons 1084 tons
Displacement

submerged

745 tons 857 tons 871 tons 871 tons 1099 tons 1080 tons 1181 tons
Length

overall

64.5 m 66.6 m 67.1 m 67.23 m 68.7 m 76.9 m 77.6 m
Length

pressure hull

44.5 m 48.8 m 50.5 m 50.5 m 50.9 m 59.8 m 60.4 m
Beam

overall

5.85 m 6.2 m 6.2 m 6.2 m 6.85 m 6.4 m 7.3 m
Beam

pressure hull

4.7 m 4.7 m 4.7 m 4.7 m 5 m 4.7 m 4.7 m
Draft 4.4 m 4.74 m 4.74 m 4.74 m 5 m 5 m 4.9 m
Power

surfaced

1,700 kW[Note 7] 2,400 kW[Note 8] 2,400 kW[Note 9] 2,400 kW[Note 10] 2,400 kW[Note 11] 2,400 kW[Note 12] 2,400 kW[Note 13]
Power

submerged

560 kW[Note 14] 560 kW[Note 15] 560 kW[Note 16] 560 kW[Note 17] 560 kW[Note 18] 560 kW[Note 19] 560 kW[Note 20]
Surface

speed

17 knots (31 km/h) 17.9 knots (33.2 km/h) 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h) 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h) 18.6 knots (34.4 km/h) 16.7 knots (30.9 km/h) 17.6 knots (32.6 km/h)
Submerged

speed

8 knots (15 km/h) 8 knots (15 km/h) 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h) 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h) 7.3 knots (13.5 km/h) 7.9 knots (14.6 km/h) 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h)
Surface

range

11,470 km (6,190 nmi) 16,095 km (8,691 nmi) 15,170 km (8,190 nmi) 15,725 km (8,491 nmi) 23,310 km (12,590 nmi) 20,720 km (11,190 nmi) 27,195 km (14,684 nmi)
Submerged

range

175 km (94 nmi) 175 km (94 nmi) 150 km (81 nmi) 150 km (81 nmi) 150 km (81 nmi) 130 km (70 nmi) 140 km (76 nmi)
Maximum

operating depth

220 m 220 m 230 m 250 m 270 m 200 m 200 m
Crush depth 230–250 m 230–250 m 250–295 m 275–325 m 350–400 m 220–240 m 220–240 m
Complement 42–46 44–48 44–52 44–52 44–52 46–52 46–52
Deck gun C35 88 mm/L45, with 220 rounds none
Anti-aircraft

guns

C30 20 mm Various 2 × C30 20 mm,

with 4,380 rounds

3.7 cm Flak,

with 1,195 rounds 2 × C30 20 mm, with 4,380 rounds

Bow tubes 4 [Note 21]
Stern tubes 1 [Note 22]
Torpedoes

(maximum)

11 14 14 14 16 14 14 / 39 [Note 23]
Mines 22 TMA mines

or 33 TMB mines

26 TMA mines 15 SMA mines in

vertical chutes and either 26 TMA mines or 39 TMB mines

none
Number

commissioned

10 24 568 91 0 [Note 24] 6 4

[edit] NotesEdit

  1. ^ post war; U-1057, U 1058, U 1064, U 1305 as respectively TS-14, S-81S-84
  2. ^ post war - U-995 and two others
  3. ^ U-570 as HMS Graph (P715)
  4. ^ U-471/Mille (S609), U-766/Laubie (S610)
  5. ^ G-7/U-573
  6. ^ U-boat ace Otto Kretchmer took issue with use of the term "Happy Time." He didn't see how the U-boat war could ever be characterized as having a "Happy Time" when losses of U-boats and crews were running at 50%. (See interview on YouTube.)
  7. ^ 2 MAN, 6 cylinder, 4-stroke M6V 40/46 diesels totalling 2,100 - 2,310bhp. Max rpm: 470-485.
  8. ^ 2 supercharged MAN, 6 cylinder, 4-stroke M6V 40/46 diesels totalling 2,800 - 3,200bhp. Max rpm: 470-490.
  9. ^ 2 supercharged Germaniawerft, 6 cylinder, 4-stroke M6V 40/46 diesels totalling 2,800 - 3,200bhp. Max rpm: 470-490.
  10. ^ Same as VIIC
  11. ^ Same as VIIC
  12. ^ 2 supercharged Germaniawerft, 6 cylinder, 4-stroke F46 diesels totalling 2,800 - 3,200bhp. Max rpm: 470-490.
  13. ^ Same as VIID.
  14. ^ 2 Brown, Boveri & Cie GG UB 720/8 electric motors, totalling 750shp. Max rpm: 322.
  15. ^ 2 AEG GU 460/8-276 electric motors, totalling 750shp. Max rpm: 295.
  16. ^ Same as VIIA or VIIB, 2 Siemens-Schuckert Werke GU 343/38-8 electric motors, totalling 750shp and max rpm: 296 or 2 Garbe Lahmeyer RP 137/c electric motors, totalling 750shp and max rpm: 296.
  17. ^ Same as VIIC
  18. ^ Same as VIIC
  19. ^ 2 AEG GU 460/8-276 electric motors, totalling 750shp. Max rpm: 285
  20. ^ Same as VIID
  21. ^ A small number of VIIC boats were fitted with only two forward tubes
  22. ^ A small number of VIIC boats were fitted with no stern tube
  23. ^ 39 Torpedoes were carried in the transport role
  24. ^ None of the boats were ready by the end of the war

[edit] ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Helgason, Guðmundur. "Type VIIC". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/types/viic.htm. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
  2. ^ Eberhard Möller, Werner Brack The Encyclopedia of U-Boats pp 69-73
  3. ^ Campbell, John Naval Weapons of World War Two ISBN 0-87021-459-4 p.251
  4. ^ "Type VII U-Boat". German U-Boat. Uboataces.com. http://www.uboataces.com/uboat-type-vii.shtml. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  5. ^ a b c d Helgason, Guðmundur. "Type VIIA". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/types/viia.htm. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
  6. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-27". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u27.htm. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
  7. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-27". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u27.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  8. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-28". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u28.htm. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
  9. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-28". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u28.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  10. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-29". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u29.htm. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
  11. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-29". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u29.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  12. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-30". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u30.htm. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
  13. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-30". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u30.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  14. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-31". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u31.htm. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
  15. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-31". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u31.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  16. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-32". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u32.htm. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
  17. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-32". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u32.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  18. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-33". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u33.htm. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
  19. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-33". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u33.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  20. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-34". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u34.htm. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
  21. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-34". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u34.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  22. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-35". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u35.htm. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
  23. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-35". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u35.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  24. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-36". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u36.htm. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
  25. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-36". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u36.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  26. ^ a b c d Helgason, Guðmundur. "Type VIIB". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/types/viib.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  27. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-45". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u45.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  28. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-45". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u45.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  29. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-46". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u46.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  30. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-46". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u46.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  31. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-47". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u47.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  32. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-47". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u47.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  33. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-48". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u48.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  34. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-48". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u48.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  35. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-49". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u49.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  36. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-49". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u49.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  37. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-50". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u50.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  38. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-50". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u50.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  39. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-51". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u51.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  40. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-51". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u51.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  41. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-52". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u52.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  42. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-52". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u52.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  43. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-53". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u53.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  44. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-53". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u53.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  45. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-54". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u54.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  46. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-55". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u55.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  47. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-55". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u55.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  48. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-73". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u73.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  49. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-73". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u73.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  50. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-74". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u74.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  51. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-74". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u74.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  52. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-75". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u75.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  53. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-75". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u75.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  54. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-76". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u76.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  55. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-76". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u76.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  56. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-83". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u83.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  57. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-83". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u83.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  58. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-84". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u84.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  59. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-84". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u84.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  60. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-85". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u85.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  61. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-85". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u85.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  62. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-86". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u86.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  63. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-86". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u86.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  64. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-87". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u87.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  65. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-87". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u87.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  66. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-99". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u99.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  67. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-99". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u99.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  68. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-100". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u100.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  69. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-100". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u100.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  70. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-101". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u101.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  71. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-101". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u101.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  72. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-102". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u102.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  73. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-102". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u102.html. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  74. ^ a b c d e f g h Helgason, Guðmundur. "Type VIIC". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/types/viic.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  75. ^ Busch, Harald (1955), U-Boats at War (New York: Ballantine Books)
  76. ^ a b c Helgason, Guðmundur. "Type VIID". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/types/viid.htm. Retrieved 15 February 2010.
  77. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-213". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u213.htm. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
  78. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-214". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u214.htm. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
  79. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-214". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u214.html. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
  80. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-215". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u215.htm. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
  81. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-215". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u215.html. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
  82. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-216". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u216.htm. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
  83. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-216". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u216.html. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
  84. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-217". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u217.htm. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
  85. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-217". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u217.html. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
  86. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-218". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u218.htm. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
  87. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-218". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/successes/u218.html. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
  88. ^ a b Helgason, Guðmundur. "Type VIIF". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/types/viif.htm. Retrieved 20 February 2010.
  89. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-1059". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u1059.htm. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
  90. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-1060". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u1060.htm. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
  91. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-1061". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u1061.htm. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
  92. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-1062". U-Boat War in World War II. Uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/boats/u1062.htm. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
  93. ^ a b c d e f g "Type VII U-Boat". German U-Boat. Uboataces. http://www.uboataces.com/uboat-type-vii.shtml. Retrieved 14 February 2010.

[edit] Further readingEdit

  • Rossler, Eberhard (1981). The U-Boat. Annapolis, Maryland (USA): Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-966-9.
  • Stern, Robert C. (1991). Type VII U-boats. Annapolis, Maryland (USA): Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-828-3.

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.