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[1]

U-505, a type IXC U-boat

Class overview
Operators: Kriegsmarine

Imperial Japanese Navy (U-511 and U-862)

Soviet Navy (post war; U-1231 as B-26)
Preceded by: Type VII submarine
Succeeded by: Type X submarine
Built: 1937–1944
In commission: 1938–1945
Completed: 283
General characteristics
Type: Submarine
Propulsion: 2 × MAN M9V40/46 supercharged 9-cylinder diesel engines, 4,400 hp (3,300 kW)

2 × SSW GU345/34 double-acting electric motors, 1,000 hp (740 kW) 6 x Daimler-Benz MB501 20 cylinder Diesel marine engines with total power of 9,000hp (IX-D Variant)

Test depth: 230 m (750 ft)
Complement: 48 to 56 (55 to 63 in Type IXD)
Armament: 6 × torpedo tubes (4 bow, 2 stern)

22 × 533 mm (21.0 in) torpedoes (24 in Type IXD) 1 × 10.5 cm SK C/32 naval gun[1]with 110 rounds Various combinations of AA cannons: Common calibers 20mm, 30mm and 37mm

The Type IX U-boat was designed by Germany in 1935 and 1936 as a large ocean-going submarine for sustained operations far from the home support facilities. Type IX boats were briefly used for patrols off the eastern United States in an attempt to disrupt the stream of troops and supplies bound for Europe. The extended range came at the cost of longer dive times and decreased maneuverability, which is why the smaller Type VII was produced in greater numbers and used for the bulk of operations. It was derived from the Type IA, and appeared in various sub-types.

Type IXs had six torpedo tubes, four at the bow and two at the stern. They carried six reloads internally and had five external torpedo containers (three at the stern and two at the bow) which stored ten additional torpedoes. The total of 22 torpedoes allowed U-boat commanders to follow a convoy and strike night after night. As mine-layers they could carry 44 TMA or 66 TMB mines, but many of the IXC boats were not fitted for mine operations.

Secondary armament was provided by one large Utof 105/45 gun with about 110 rounds. Anti-aircraft armament differed throughout the war. They had two periscopes in the tower. Types IXA and IXB had an additional periscope in the control room, which was removed in Type IXC and afterward.

ContentsEdit

[hide] *1 Type IXA

Type IXAEdit

Main article: German Type IXA submarine

General characteristics (IXA)
Displacement: 1,032 t (1,016 long tons) surfaced

1,152 t (1,134 long tons) submerged

Length: 76.6 m (251 ft 4 in) overall

58.7 m (192 ft 7 in) pressure hull

Beam: 6.5 m (21 ft 4 in) overall

4.4 m (14 ft 5 in) pressure hull

Height: 9.4 m (30 ft 10 in)
Draft: 4.7 m (15 ft 5 in)
Speed: 18.2 knots (33.7 km/h) surfaced

7.7 knots (14.3 km/h) submerged

Range: 8,100 nmi (15,000 km) at 10 knots (19 km/h) surfaced65 nmi (120 km) at 4 kn (7.4 km/h) submerged[2]

List of Type IXA submarinesEdit

Eight Type IXA U-boats were built by AG Weser of Bremen.

Type IXBEdit

General characteristics (IXB)
Displacement: 1,051 t (1,034 long tons) surfaced

1,178 t (1,159 long tons) submerged

Length: 76.5 m (251 ft 0 in) overall

58.7 m (192 ft 7 in) pressure hull

Beam: 6.8 m (22 ft 4 in) overall

4.4 m (14 ft 5 in) pressure hull

Height: 9.6 m (31 ft 6 in)
Draft: 4.7 m (15 ft 5 in)
Speed: 18.2 knots (33.7 km/h) surfaced

7.3 knots (13.5 km/h) submerged

Range: 8,700 nmi (16,100 km) at 10 knots (19 km/h) surfaced64 nmi (119 km) at 4 kn (7.4 km/h) submerged[2]

Type IXB was an improved model with an increased range. It was the most successful version overall with each boat averaging a total of over 100,000 tonnes sunk.

Famous IXB boats included U-123 under the command of Reinhard Hardegen, which opened up the attack in the US waters in early 1942 known as Operation Drumbeat, and U-107 operating off Freetown, Sierra Leone under the command of Günther Hessler, which had the most successful single mission of the war ever with close to 100,000 tonnes sunk.

List of Type IXB submarinesEdit

Fourteen Type IXB U-boats were built by AG Weser of Bremen.

*U-64*U-65*U-103*U-104*U-105*U-106 *U-108*U-109*U-110*U-111*U-122*U-123

Type IXCEdit

General characteristics (IXC)
Displacement: 1,120 t (1,100 long tons) surfaced

1,232 t (1,213 long tons) submerged

Length: 76.8 m (252 ft 0 in) overall

58.7 m (192 ft 7 in) pressure hull

Beam: 6.8 m (22 ft 4 in) overall

4.4 m (14 ft 5 in) pressure hull

Height: 9.4 m (30 ft 10 in)
Draft: 4.7 m (15 ft 5 in)
Speed: 18.3 knots (33.9 km/h) surfaced

7.3 knots (13.5 km/h) submerged

Range: 11,000 nmi (20,000 km) at 10 knots (19 km/h) surfaced63 nmi (117 km) at 4 kn (7.4 km/h) submerged[2]

Type IXC was a further refinement of the class with storage for an additional 43 tonnes of fuel, increasing the boat's range. This series omitted the control room periscope leaving the boats with two tower scopes.

As mine-layers they could carry 44 TMA or 66 TMB mines, though U-162 through U-170 and U-505 through U-550 (35 boats), were not fitted for mine operations.

One IXC carries the distinction of being the only U-boat sunk in the Gulf of Mexico, U-166.

U-505 survives at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago, and as of 2005 has been completely renovated.[3]

List of Type IXC submarinesEdit

There were 54 Type IXC submarines were built by AG Weser and Seebeckwerft of Bremen, and Deutsche Werft of Hamburg.

*U-66*U-67*U-68*U-125*U-126*U-127 *U-162*U-163*U-164*U-165*U-166*U-171 *U-508*U-509*U-510*U-511*U-512*U-513

Type IXC/40Edit

General characteristics (IXC/40)
Displacement: 1,120 t (1,100 long tons) surfaced

1,232 t (1,213 long tons) submerged

Length: 76.8 m (252 ft 0 in) overall

58.7 m (192 ft 7 in) pressure hull

Beam: 6.9 m (22 ft 8 in) overall

4.4 m (14 ft 5 in) pressure hull

Height: 9.6 m (31 ft 6 in)
Draft: 4.7 m (15 ft 5 in)
Speed: 18.3 knots (33.9 km/h) surfaced

7.3 knots (13.5 km/h) submerged

Range: 11,400 nmi (21,100 km) at 10 knots (19 km/h) surfaced63 nmi (117 km) at 4 kn (7.4 km/h) submerged[2]

Type IXC/40 was an improved Type IXC with slightly increased range and surfaced speed. The remains of U-534 are on display at Woodside Ferry Terminal, Birkenhead.[4]

List of Type IXC/40 submarinesEdit

Eighty-seven of this type were built by AG Weser and Seebeckwerft of Bremen, and Deutsche Werft of Hamburg.

*U-167*U-168*U-169*U-170*U-183*U-184 *U-538*U-539*U-540*U-541*U-542*U-543 *U-857*U-858*U-865*U-866*U-867*U-868

Type IXDEdit

General characteristics (IXD)
Displacement: 1,610 t (1,580 long tons) surfaced

1,799 t (1,771 long tons) submerged

Length: 87.6 m (287 ft 5 in) overall

68.5 m (224 ft 9 in) pressure hull

Beam: 7.5 m (24 ft 7 in) overall

4.4 m (14 ft 5 in) pressure hull

Height: 10.2 m (33 ft 6 in)
Draft: 5.4 m (17 ft 9 in)
Speed: 20.8 knots (38.5 km/h) surfaced

6.9 knots (12.8 km/h) submerged

Range: 9,900 nmi (18,300 km) at 10 knots (19 km/h) surfaced57 nmi (106 km) at 4 kn (7.4 km/h) submerged[2]

Type IXD was significantly longer and heavier than the IXC/40. It was faster than the IXC but at the cost of slightly reduced range. They had three pairs of Daimler Benz diesels: two pairs for cruise and one for high speed or battery recharge. There were three variants: the IXD1, IXD2 and IXD/42. The IXD1 had unreliable engines and they were converted to transports. The IXD2 comprised most of the class. The IXD/42, was almost identical but with more engine power (5,400 ehp instead of 4,400).

In 1943 and 1944 the torpedo tubes were removed from a number of IXD boats converted for transport use. In their new role they could transport 252 tonnes of cargo.

List of Type IXD submarinesEdit

Thirty Type IXD U-boats were built by AG Weser of Bremen.

*U-177*U-178*U-179*U-180*U-181*U-182 *U-199*U-200*U-847*U-848*U-849*U-850 *U-861*U-862*U-863*U-864*U-871*U-872

Several Type IXD/42 U-boats were contracted to be built AG Weser of Bremen, but only two were commissioned. They were:

  • U-883 was launched on April 28, 1944 and commissioned March 27, 1945. Her career ended in Operation Deadlight.
  • U-884 was launched on May 17, 1944 but was badly damaged on March 30, 1945 by US bombs while still in dockyard hands.
  • U-885, U-886, U-887, and U-888 were laid down but construction halted on September 30, 1943 when all IXD/42 contracts were cancelled.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Campbell, John Naval Weapons of World War Two ISBN 0-87021-459-4 pp.248&249
  2. ^ a b c d e Kriegsmarine U-boats, 1939-45, Volume 2. By Gordon Williamson, Ian Palmer.
  3. ^ "U-505 (German Submarine)". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=2065&ResourceType=Structure. Retrieved 2008-06-11.
  4. ^ "The U-Boat Story - The Story of World War 2 German Submarine U-534". u-boatstory.co.uk. http://www.u-boatstory.co.uk/. Retrieved 6 February 2010.

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