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The Empire of Japan was a Japanese political entity that existed during the period from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until its defeat in World War II in 1945.The country's rapid industrialization and militarization under the slogan Fukoku Kyōhei , led to its emergence as a world power eventually culminating with its membership in the Axi alliance and the conquest of a large part of the Asia-Pacific region.

Despite several large scale military successes during the first half of the Pacific War, the Empire of Japan, after suffering numerous defeats as the war progressed and the atomic bombings of the towns Hiroshima and Nagasaki, surrendered to the Allies on September 2, 1945. A period of occupation by the Allies followed the surrender and dissolution of the Empire, and a new constitution was created with American involvement. American occupation and reconstruction of the country continued well into the 1950s eventually forming the current modern Japan.