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[1][2]The B-17 Flying Fortress is a heavy bomber from World War II.A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground and sea targets, by dropping bombs on them, firing torpedoes at them, or – in recent years – by launching cruise missiles at them.

ContentsEdit

[hide] *1 Classification

ClassificationEdit

[3][4]A Tupolev Tu-160strategic bomber.===Strategic=== Strategic bombing are heavy bombers primarily designed for long-range bombing missions against strategic targets such as supply bases, bridges, factories, shipyards, and cities themselves, in order to damage an enemy's war effort. Current examples include the strategic nuclear-armed strategic bombers: B-2 Spirit, B-52 Stratofortress, Tupolev Tu-95 'Bear', Tupolev Tu-22M 'Backfire'; historically notable examples are the: Gotha G, Avro Lancaster, Heinkel He-111, Junkers Ju 88, B-17 Flying Fortress, B-24 Liberator, B-29 Superfortress, and Tupolev Tu-16 'Badger'.

TacticalEdit

Tactical bombing, aimed at enemy military units and installations, is typically assigned to smaller aircraft operating at shorter ranges, typically along the troops on the ground or sea. This role is filled by various aircraft tactical bomber classes, as different as light bombers, medium bombers, dive bombers, interdictors, fighter-bombers, ground-attack aircraft, multirole combat aircraft, among others. Current examples: F-15E Strike Eagle, F/A-18 Hornet, Sukhoi Su-34 'Fullback', Chengdu J-10, Xian JH-7, Dassault-Breguet Mirage 2000, and the Panavia Tornado; historical examples: Ilyushin Il-2 Shturmovik, Heinkel He 111, Dornier Do 17, Dornier Do 215, Junkers Ju 88, Junkers Ju 87 Stuka, P-47 Thunderbolt, Hawker Typhoon, and F-4 Phantom II.

HistoryEdit

[5][6]Italian Caproni Ca.3 World War I heavy bomber[7][8]British Handley Page Type OAvro Lancaster dropping 22,000 lb Grand Slam bomb=== 1911–1939=== The first use of an air-dropped bomb was carried out by the Italians, initially by Lieutenant Giulio Gavotti,[1] in their 1911 war for Libya.

E. Mark cites Caproni Ca 30 and Bristol T.B.8, both of 1913, as one of the first of heavier-than-air aircraft purposely designed for bombing.[2]

During World War I, the Germans used Zeppelins as bombers since they had the range and capacity to carry a useful bomb load from Germany to England. With advances in aircraft design and equipment, they were joined by larger multi-engined biplane aircraft on both sides for long range strategic bombing especially by night. The majority of bombing was still done by one-engined biplanes with one or two crew-members flying short distances to attack the enemy lines and immediate hinterland.

The world's first four-engined bomber was the Russian Il'ya Muromets created in 1914 and successfully used in World War I.

World War IIEdit

[9][10]Douglas SBD Dauntless dive bomberWith engine power as a major limitation, combined with the desire for accuracy and other operational factors, bomber designs tended to be tailored to one particular role. By the start of the war this included

Bombers are not intended to attack other aircraft although many are fitted with defensive weapons. World War two saw the beginning of the widespread use of high speed bombers which dispensed with defensive weapons to be able to attain higher speed, such as with the de Havilland Mosquito, a philosophy that continued with many Cold War bombers.

Some smaller designs have been used as the basis for specialist fighters, such as night fighters, and a number of fighters, such as the Hawker Hurricane were used as ground attack aircraft bombers, replacing earlier conventional light bombers that proved unable to defend themselves and carry a reasonable bombload.

Cold WarEdit

[11][12]Tu-95 Bear being escorted[13][14]The Avro Vulcan was part of the RAF V bomber forceAt the start of the Cold War, bombers were the only means to take nuclear weapons to enemy targets, and had the role of deterrence. With the advent of guided air to air missiles, bombers needed to avoid interception. High speed and high altitude flying became a means of evading detection and attack. Designs such as the English Electric Canberra could fly faster or higher than contemporary fighters. When surface to air missiles became capable of hitting high flying aircraft bombers, bombers used flight at low altitude to evade radar detection.

Once "stand off" nuclear weapon designs were developed, bombers did not need to pass over the target at high altitude to make an attack; they could fire and turn away to escape the blast. Nuclear strike aircraft were generally finished in bare metal or anti-flash white to avoid any flash damage.

The need to drop conventional bombs remained in conflicts with a non-nuclear powers, such as the Vietnam War or Malayan Emergency.

The development of large strategic bombers stagnated in the later part of the Cold War because of spiraling costs and the development of the Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) – which was felt to have equal deterrent value while being much more difficult to intercept. Because of this, the United States Air Force XB-70 Valkyrie program was cancelled in the early 1960s; the later B-1B Lancer and B-2 Spirit aircraft entered service only after protracted political and development problems. Their high cost meant that few were built and the 1950s-designed B-52s continued in use into the 21st century. Similarly, the Soviet Union used the intermediate-range Tu-22M 'Backfire'in the 1970s, but their Mach 3 bomber project came to naught. The Mach 2 Tu-160 'Blackjack' was built only in tiny numbers, leaving the 1950s Tupolev Tu-16 and Tu-95 'Bear' heavy bombers to continue being used into the 21st century.

The British strategic bombing force largely came to an end when the V bomber force was phased out; the last of which left service in 1983. The French Mirage IV bomber version was retired in 1996, although the Mirage 2000N and the Rafale have a taken on this role. The only other nation that fields strategic bombing forces is the People's Republic of China, which has a number of Xian H-6s.

Modern eraEdit

[15][16]Transferring a 2,000 pound JDAM to a lift truck for loading onto a B-1B Lancer supersonic strategic bomber in Southwest Asia in 2007.In modern air forces, the distinction between bombers, fighter-bombers, and attack aircraft has become blurred. Many attack aircraft, even ones that look like fighters, are optimized to drop bombs, with very little ability to engage in aerial combat. Indeed, the design qualities that make an effective low-level attack aircraft make for a distinctly inferior air superiority fighter, and vice versa. Conversely, many fighter aircraft, such as the F-16, are often used as 'bomb trucks,' despite being designed for aerial combat. Perhaps the one meaningful distinction at present is the question of range: a bomber is generally a long-range aircraft capable of striking targets deep within enemy territory, whereas fighter bombers and attack aircraft are limited to 'theater' missions in and around the immediate area of battlefield combat. Even that distinction is muddied by the availability of aerial refueling, which greatly increases the potential radius of combat operations.

Plans in the U.S. and Russia for successors to the current strategic bomber force remain only paper projects, and political and funding pressures suggest that they are likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. In the U.S., current plans call for the existing USAF bomber fleet to remain in service until the mid-to-late 2020s, with the first possible replacements becoming operational in 2018.[3] After this bomber the U.S. is also thinking of another bomber in 2037. The 2018 bomber will be made in small quantities as it will be a transition aircraft for this 2037 bomber. The 2018 bomber was, however, required to provide an answer to the fifth generation defense systems (such as SA-21 Growlers, bistatic radar and Active Electronically Scanned Array radar). Also, it was chosen to be able to stand strong against rising superpowers and other countries with semi-advanced military capability. Finally, a third reason was long-term air support for areas with a low threat level (Iraq, Afghanistan). The latter was referred to as close air support for the global war on terror (CAS for GWOT). The 2018 bomber would thus be able to stay for extended periods on a same location (called persistence).[4] Also, the 2018 bomber and later bombers could be automated.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Johnston, Alan (10 May 2011). "Libya 1911: How an Italian pilot began the air war era". BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-13294524. Retrieved 2011-05-23.
  2. ^ Mark (1995-07). Aerial Interdiction: Air Power and the Land Battle in Three American Wars. pp. 9–10. ISBN 978-0-7881-1966-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=kr2Gc7btCxEC&pg=PA9.
  3. ^ "USAF may seek supersonic and unmanned capabilities for bomber". http://www.janes.com/news/defence/air/jdw/jdw071018_1_n.shtml. Retrieved 2007-11-25.
  4. ^ Persistence in 2018 bomber

External linksEdit

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